This marzipan-like confectionery made from sweet almonds and preserved fruits is a great gourmet speciality of Aix en Provence. If one is to believe one of the numerous versions of the birth of the calisson in Aix, the calisson made its appearance in modern form in 1473 on the occasion of the wedding dinner at King René's second marriage. It is more likely that its appearance accompanied the introduction of the almond to Provence in the 16th century and the development of its trade in Aix, as almond production spread. In the 19th century the first calisson factories were created and by the beginning of the 20th century Aix was the world capital of the almond trade. Aix is home to about twenty manufacturers. Today they are gathered at the base of the Aix Union of Calisson Makers to maintain four centuries of Aixoise tradition.
Until Revolution, every 1st september the bells of the city ringed to remember the Martelly's vow. It is at one of these offices that were given the Calissons of Aix. The blessed calissons by the Archbishop were distributed to the congregation singing ''Venite ad Calicom" (Come all to the calissons). Along centuries, this tradition of the Martelly's vow perpetuated.